谭译|一部红楼两译本,千秋各具万世传

摘要: 得多美的英文才配得上这本中国名著?

10-29 18:46 首页 英语世界


著名的越剧选段 “天上掉下个林妹妹” 里,贾宝玉形容林黛玉 “娴静犹如花照水,行动好比风拂柳”——形容一个中国古典美女,实在想不出比这更好的表达。

这两句取材自《红楼梦》原文,里面说林妹妹:


两弯似蹙非蹙笼烟眉,

一双似喜非喜含情目。

态生两靥之愁,

娇袭一身之病。

泪光点点,娇喘微微。

闲静时如姣花照水,

行动处似弱柳扶风。

心较比干多一窍,

病如西子胜三分。


都说《红楼梦》是中国文字美学的集大成,由此可窥一斑。什么样的英语才配得上这样美的中文呢?好事的我翻来了英文版,幸好不致失望。


Her mist-wreathed brows at first seemed to frown, yet were not frowning;
Her passionate eyes at first seemed to smile, yet were not merry. 

Habit had given a melancholy cast to her tender face; 

Nature had bestowed a sickly constitution on her delicate frame. 

Often the eyes swam with glistening tears; 

Often the breath came in gentle gasps. 

In stillness she made one think of a graceful flower reflected in the water; 

In motion she called to mind tender willow shoots caressed by the wind. 

She had more chambers in her heart than the martyred Bi Gan; 

And suffered a tithe more pain in it than the beautiful Xi Shi.


译者是英国汉学家大卫?霍克斯( David Hawkes,1923-2009 )。



现行的完整红楼翻译主要有两个版本,都成书于上世纪七八十年代,译者分别是霍克斯和他的英国女婿闵福德,以及中国翻译家杨宪益和他的英国夫人戴乃迭


感谢他们,西方读者总算可以感受到中国最伟大古典小说的魅力,还一下子有了两个选择。


霍克斯在牛津原本学习拉丁和希腊古典文学,二战时,被挑去学日语,然后现学现卖,教英国军官破译日军密码。霍克斯后来改学中文,于1948年前往北京大学读研究生。


1949年10月1日,霍克斯来到天安门广场,作为大学生方阵中的一员,高呼 “毛主席万岁”,参加了开国大典。1950年,霍克斯特地把未婚妻喊来中国,两人在北京结了婚。霍克斯后来成为牛津大学中文系主任



20世纪50年代,《红楼梦》还没有全译本,只有节选本,且错误百出。比方说,将“林黛玉”翻成Black Jade,black意为“黑”,即“黛”,jade是玉,似乎没有大问题,但jade有一个意思是“荡妇”,black jade易让人产生不好的联想。


在中国同事、红学家吴世昌的鼓励下,霍克斯决定翻译《红楼梦》,为了专注于此,甚至辞去了牛津大学教授的职务。


霍克斯翻译了前80回,后40回由学生闵福德(John Minford,1946-)翻译,然后闵福德(下图)成了霍克斯的女婿。



杨宪益(1915-2009)原本是天津富家公子,成长于温柔富贵乡,后家道中落。从这点上来说,和贾宝玉倒有几分相似。杨宪益的手很有名,小编特地找图片看了看,确实纤细修长。



杨宪益的夫人叫Gladys B. Tayler(1919-1999),是个出生于中国的英国人,7岁回到英国。两人相识于牛津,杨宪益为她取名——戴乃迭。


戴乃迭对中国很有感情,经常跟杨宪益讲小时候在中国烤山芋的故事。杨宪益研究文学,戴乃迭原学法语,后转为中文,成为牛津大学攻读中文学位的第一人,霍克斯自称第二人。


1940年,杨宪益拒绝了哈佛大学的聘书,带着戴乃迭,回到了战火纷飞的中国,从此译坛有了神雕侠侣。



新中国成立后,夫妻俩在外文出版社工作。英国企鹅出版社出版霍克斯译本时,归在“企鹅丛书”系列,杨宪益于是推出了一个“熊猫丛书”,《长生殿》《儒林外史》《白毛女》等众多作品,进入西方世界,杨宪益被誉为“翻译了整个中国”


有趣的是,杨宪益的妹妹,杨苡(下图),也是翻译家。杨苡第一个将 Wuthering Heights 翻译成 “呼啸山庄”,在她之前,梁实秋等人的版本是 “咆哮山庄” 。



杨译本和霍译本成书以来,两书的对比研究,汗牛充栋。比方有人长篇累牍,分析为什么霍译本叫《石头记》(The Story of the Stone,而杨译本叫《红楼梦》(A Dream of Red Mansions


杨宪益说过,霍克斯是他们的朋友,夫妻俩翻译《红楼梦》时,霍克斯已经开工两年多。霍克斯的版本,名字用的是《石头记》,他为了显得稍微有些不一样,就用了《红楼梦》这个书名。



今天我们选取一个小小的点,看看两个译本,分别如何描述林黛玉、王熙凤、薛宝钗、迎春、探春等人的美貌。


林黛玉


两弯似蹙非蹙笼烟眉,一双似喜非喜含情目。态生两靥之愁,娇袭一身之病。泪光点点,娇喘微微。闲静时如姣花照水,行动处似弱柳扶风。心较比干多一窍,病如西子胜三分。


杨宪益

Her dusky arched eyebrows were knitted and yet not frowning, her speaking eyes held both merriment and sorrow; her very frailty had charm. Her eyes sparkled with tears, her breath was soft and faint. In repose she was like a lovely flower mirrored in the water; in motion, a pliant willow swaying in the wind. She looked more sensitive than Bi Gan, more delicate than Xi Shi.

霍克斯

Her mist-wreathed brows at first seemed to frown, yet were not frowning;
Her passionate eyes at first seemed to smile, yet were not merry. 

Habit had given a melancholy cast to her tender face; 

Nature had bestowed a sickly constitution on her delicate frame. 

Often the eyes swam with glistening tears; 

Often the breath came in gentle gasps. 

In stillness she made one think of a graceful flower reflected in the water; 

In motion she called to mind tender willow shoots caressed by the wind. 

She had more chambers in her heart than the martyred Bi Gan; 

And suffered a tithe more pain in it than the beautiful Xi Shi.


学界评论:杨译本,忠实原著,直译为主,有时语言略显苍白,文采不足;霍译本,意译为主,流畅自然,饱满耐读。

值得一提的是两人对比干和西施的处理。杨译本直接采用拼音,原书中附有注释,说明背后的典故。霍译本此处没有注释,但增译了 martyred (殉道的,长期受苦的)beautiful 两个信息,使西方读者大概能知道,比干被杀、西施如花。


杨译本在翻译名字时候,多用拼音进行音译,最初用的都是韦氏拼音,林黛玉 Lin Tai-yu,但外文出版社最近的版本,一律都改成了现代汉语拼音。


当然,《红楼梦》里面很多人物,名字是有含义的,如贾雨村(假语存)、甄士隐(真事隐),遇到这样的情况,杨译本会给出注释,比方说,甄士隐 Zhen Shiyin (Homophone for true facts concealed)



相较之下,霍布斯处理名字的方法,就复杂多了。


主子的名字,采用拼音,林黛玉 Lin Dai-yu。奴婢的名字,译意不译音,比如袭人Aroma (香气),以前有节选本翻译成 Assailant(攻击的)紫鹃Nightingale(夜莺)晴雯 Skybright平儿 Patience(耐心)


《红楼梦》里头还有贾家豢养的一批戏子,霍克斯用法语翻译文艺工作者的名字,似也贴切,比如芳官译成了 Parfumeé(香水)



《红楼梦》当中还有一批神通广大又来无踪、去无影的神仙、道士、和尚、尼姑。他们出场不多,但每次都在关键时刻,对于推动情节发展起到重要作用。为了突出这些人物,暗示他们的超凡神力,并给他们带上一点神秘色彩,霍克斯别出心裁地用拉丁语来翻译这些神仙的名字。


空空道人 Vanitas 

茫茫大士 Impervioso 

渺渺真人 Mysterioso 

栊翠庵的妙玉 Adamant ina


王熙凤


一双丹凤三角眼,两弯柳叶吊梢眉,身量苗条,体格风骚,粉面含春威不露,唇未起笑先闻。


杨宪益

She had the almond-shaped eyes of a phoenix, slanting eyebrows as long and drooping as willow leaves. Her figure was slender and her man-ner vivacious. The springtime charm of her powdered face gave no hint of her latent formidability. And before her crimson lips parted, her laugh-ter rang out.

霍克斯

She had, moreover,
eyes like a painted phoenix,  
eyebrows like willow-leaves,  
a slender form,  
seductive grace;  
the ever-smiling summer face
of hidden thunders showed no trace;   
the ever-bubbling laughter started  
almost before the lips were parted.


丹凤三角眼,译成 almond-shaped eyes,外国读者一下就明白,形似杏仁。杨译本意思完整全面,朴素平实,译者是脱离文本之外的,他冷静客观地叙述一个故事,不带有太多的个人感情。

杨宪益说,翻译《红楼梦》是因为外文出版社的指示。杨宪益小时候读《红楼梦》,读了一半就读不下去了,


“我不喜欢看《红楼梦》。不过我在里面工作,他们要我翻译什么我就翻译什么吧,人要吃饭嘛。”



霍译本,什么叫眼睛像画上的凤凰?霍克斯年老时说,不能自认为处处都处理得很成功,如果能够使读者得到自己读《红楼梦》时、获得的乐趣的百分之一,就不枉此生了。


霍克斯匠心独运,同前文林黛玉的处理方法类似,采用诗歌的形式和韵律,朗朗上口,形神兼备。读者仿佛能感受到,译者以一腔赤诚,在饱含深情地讲述一段故事。

薛宝钗


唇不点而红,眉不画而翠,脸若银盆,眼如水杏。


杨宪益

Her lips needed no rouge, her blue-black eyebrows no brush; her face seemed a silver disk, her eyes almonds swimming in water.

霍克斯

He saw no hint of luxury or show, only a chaste, refined sobriety.


如前所述,杨译本高度忠实原文,只是有时候可能会让西方读者产生疑惑,什么叫 “眼睛是杏仁游泳”(her eyes almonds swimming in water)。


霍克斯没有逐字翻译,可能他觉得,no hint of luxury or show(没有一点儿奢侈和炫耀的意味),已经反映了宝钗不事雕琢的美态。

迎春


肌肤微丰,合中身材,腮凝新荔,鼻腻鹅脂,温柔沉默,观之可亲。


杨宪益

The first was somewhat plump and of medium height. Her cheeks were the texture of newly ripened lichees, her nose as sleek as goose fat. Gentle and demure, she looked very approachable.

霍克斯

The first girl was of medium height and slightly plumpish, with cheeks as white and firm as a fresh lychee and a nose as white and shiny as soap made from the white goose-fat. She had a gentle, sweet, reserved manner. To look at her was to love her.


杨译本简洁,霍译本具体,霍译本添加了解释性的描述。“鼻腻鹅脂”,杨译本回译成中文是:像鹅的脂肪一样有光泽,霍译本融入了注释,又白又亮,好似鹅脂肪做成的肥皂。


探春


削肩细腰,长挑身材,鸭蛋脸面,俊眼修眉,顾盼神飞,文彩精华,见之忘俗


杨宪益

The second had sloping shoulders and a slender waist. She was tall and slim, with an oval face, well-defined eyebrows and lovely dancing eyes. She seemed elegant and quick-witted with an air of distinction. To look at her was to forget everything vulgar.

霍克斯

The second girl was rather tall, with sloping shoulders and a slender waist. She had an oval face under whose well-formed brows large, expressive eyes shot out glances that sparkled with animation. To look at her was to forget all that was mean or vulgar.


杨译本忠实原文,译文基本与四字短语一一对应。霍译本通过从句,对原文进行了重组。


1999 年戴乃迭去世后,杨宪益写诗祭亡妻,
……

青春作伴多成鬼,白首同归我负卿。
天若有情天亦老,从来银汉隔双星。


自此搁笔,不再翻译。

2009 年,杨宪益去世。霍克斯亦是同年驾鹤西去,女婿闵福德继承了衣钵,依然活跃在翻译一线,翻译了一些金庸小说,比如《鹿鼎记》。


本文参考自《<红楼梦>和<石头记>: 版本和英译名》、《文学翻译中的信息变异》、《评<红楼梦>杨氏英译本》等


(文中红楼人物图片来自 1987 年版同名电视剧。)


(感谢公众号“友邻通鉴”授权转载)



文拓视野  译悦心灵

长按以下二维码

欢迎关注《英语世界》

微信号:theworldofenglish

首页 - 英语世界 的更多文章: